Massive open pit mines are the most common type of industrial metal mine. Rio Tinto's Bingham Canyon mine southwest of Salt Lake City turned a mountain into a hole almost a kilometer deep and 4 kilometers mines generate huge amounts of waste. For example, the average gold ring generates more than 20 tons of waste.. The Nation's Top Polluter
· The basement rock in the mining area is composed of the Archean graniticgneiss distributed in the southeast of the mining area, the Paleoproterozoic gneiss and syenite in the core of Kuangou anticline and the south of the Main Open Pit, and the late Paleoproterozoic garnetbearing gneiss in the south of the East Open Pit ( Fan et al., 2010 ).